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1.4 Billion Text Credentials Analysis (NLP)

Using deep learning and NLP to analyze a large corpus of clear text passwords.


Disclaimer: for research purposes only.

In the press

Get the data

  • Download any Torrent client.
  • Here is a magnet link you can find on Reddit:
    • magnet:?xt=urn:btih:7ffbcd8cee06aba2ce6561688cf68ce2addca0a3&dn=BreachCompilation&
  • Checksum list is available here: checklist.chk
  • ./ in BreachCompilation should display something like 1,400,553,870 rows.

Get started (processing + deep learning)

Process the data and run the first deep learning model:

# make sure to install the python deps first. Virtual env are recommended here.
# virtualenv -p python3 venv3; source venv3/bin/activate; pip install -r requirements.txt
# Remove "--max_num_files 100" to process the whole dataset (few hours and 50GB of free disk space are required.)
./ <BreachCompilation path>

Data (explanation)

INPUT:   BreachCompilation/
         BreachCompilation is organized as:

         - a/          - folder of emails starting with a
         - a/a         - file of emails starting with aa
         - a/b
         - a/d
         - ...
         - z/
         - ...
         - z/y
         - z/z

OUTPUT: - BreachCompilationAnalysis/edit-distance/1.csv
        - BreachCompilationAnalysis/edit-distance/2.csv
        - BreachCompilationAnalysis/edit-distance/3.csv
        > cat 1.csv
            1 ||| samsung94 ||| [email protected]
            1 ||| 040384alexej ||| 040384alexey
            1 ||| HoiHalloDoeii14 ||| hoiHalloDoeii14
            1 ||| hoiHalloDoeii14 ||| hoiHalloDoeii13
            1 ||| hoiHalloDoeii13 ||| HoiHalloDoeii13
            1 ||| 8znachnuu ||| 7znachnuu
        EXPLANATION: edit-distance/ contains the passwords pairs sorted by edit distances.
        1.csv contains all pairs with edit distance = 1 (exactly one addition, substitution or deletion).
        2.csv => edit distance = 2, and so on.

        - BreachCompilationAnalysis/reduce-passwords-on-similar-emails/99_per_user.json
        - BreachCompilationAnalysis/reduce-passwords-on-similar-emails/9j_per_user.json
        - BreachCompilationAnalysis/reduce-passwords-on-similar-emails/9a_per_user.json
        > cat 96_per_user.json
            "1.0": [
                "edit_distance": [
                "email": "[email protected]",
                "password": [
                "edit_distance": [
                "email": "[email protected]",
                "password": [
        EXPLANATION: reduce-passwords-on-similar-emails/ contains files sorted by the first 2 letters of
        the email address. For example [email protected] will be located in 96_per_user.json
        Each file lists all the passwords grouped by user and by edit distance.
        For example, [email protected] had 2 passwords: 090698d and 090698D. The edit distance between them is 1.
        The edit_distance and the password arrays are of the same length, hence, a first 0 in the edit distance array.
        Those files are useful to model how users change passwords over time.
        We can't recover which one was the first password, but a shortest hamiltonian path algorithm is run
        to detect the most probably password ordering for a user. For example:
        hello => hello1 => [email protected] => [email protected] is the shortest path.
        We assume that users are lazy by nature and that they prefer to change their password by the lowest number
        of characters.

Run the data processing alone:

python3 --breach_compilation_folder <BreachCompilation path> --output_folder ~/BreachCompilationAnalysis

If the dataset is too big for you, you can set max_num_files to something between 0 and 2000.

  • Make sure you have enough free memory (8GB should be enough).
  • It took 1h30m to run on a Intel(R) Core(TM) i7-6900K CPU @ 3.20GHz (on a single thread).
  • Uncompressed output is around 45G.