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Last Commit
May. 19, 2019
Feb. 11, 2019


Code from the paper "Language Models are Unsupervised Multitask Learners".

We have currently released small (117M parameter) and medium (345M parameter) versions of GPT-2. While we have not released the larger models, we have released a dataset for researchers to study their behaviors.

See more details in our blog post.


This repository is meant to be a starting point for researchers and engineers to experiment with GPT-2.

Some caveats

  • GPT-2 models' robustness and worst case behaviors are not well-understood. As with any machine-learned model, carefully evaluate GPT-2 for your use case, especially if used without fine-tuning or in safety-critical applications where reliability is important.
  • The dataset our GPT-2 models were trained on contains many texts with biases and factual inaccuracies, and thus GPT-2 models are likely to be biased and inaccurate as well.
  • To avoid having samples mistaken as human-written, we recommend clearly labeling samples as synthetic before wide dissemination. Our models are often incoherent or inaccurate in subtle ways, which takes more than a quick read for a human to notice.

Work with us

Please let us know if you’re doing interesting research with or working on applications of GPT-2! We’re especially interested in hearing from and potentially working with those who are studying

  • Potential malicious use cases and defenses against them (e.g. the detectability of synthetic text)
  • The extent of problematic content (e.g. bias) being baked into the models and effective mitigations






Please use the following bibtex entry:

  title={Language Models are Unsupervised Multitask Learners},
  author={Radford, Alec and Wu, Jeff and Child, Rewon and Luan, David and Amodei, Dario and Sutskever, Ilya},

Future work

We may release code for evaluating the models on various benchmarks.

We are still considering release of the larger models.